Evaporation over a heterogenous land surface: EVA GRIPS and the LITFASS-2003 experiment - an overview
AbstractThe Evaporation at Grid/Pixel Scale (EVA GRIPS) project was realised in order to determine the area-averaged evaporation over a heterogeneous land surface at the scale of a grid box of a regional numerical weather prediction or climate model, and at the scale of a pixel of a satellite image. EVA GRIPS combined surface-based and airborne measurements, satellite data analysis, and numerical modelling activities. A mesoscale field experiment, LITFASS-2003, was carried out in the heterogeneous landscape around the Meteorological Observatory Lindenberg (MOL) of the German Meteorological Service in May and June, 2003. The experiment was embedded in the comprehensive, operational measurement program of the MOL. Experimental determination of surface fluxes on a variety of spatial scales was achieved by employing micrometeorological flux stations, scintillometers, a combination of ground-based remote sensing instruments, and the Helipod, a turbulence probe carried by a helicopter. Surface energy fluxes were also derived from satellite data. Modelling work included the use of different Soil–Vegetation–Atmosphere Transfer schemes, a large-eddy simulation model and three mesoscale atmospheric models. The paper gives an overview on the background of EVA GRIPS, and on the measurements and meteorological conditions during LITFASS-2003. A few general results are discussed.