Climate services for marine applications in Europe
AbstractThe term “climate services” is commonly used to refer to the generation of climate information, their transformation according to user needs and the subsequent use of the information in decision making processes. More generally, the concept also involves contextualization of information and knowledge. In the following a series of examples from the marine sector is described covering the generation, transformation and the use of climate information in decision making processes while contextualization is not considered. Examples comprise applications from naval architecture, offshore wind and more generally renewable energies, shipping emissions, and tidal basin water exchange and eutrophication levels. Moreover effects of climate change on coastal flood damages and the need for coastal protection are considered. Based on the analysis of these examples it is concluded that reliable climate information in data sparse regions is urgently needed, that for many applications historical climate information may be as or even more important as future long-term projections, and that the specific needs of different sectors substantially depend on their planning horizons.