Development of the city-scale chemistry transport model CityChem-EPISODE and its application to the city of Hamburg
AbstractThis paper describes the City-scale Chemistry (CityChem) extension of the urban dispersion model EPISODE with the aim to enable chemistry/transport simulations of multiple reactive pollutants on urban scales. The new model is called CityChem-EPISODE. The primary focus is on the simulation of urban ozone concentrations. Ozone is produced in photochemical reaction cycles involving nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOC) emitted by various anthropogenic activities in the urban area. The performance of the new model was evaluated with a series of synthetic tests and with a first application to the air quality situation in the city of Hamburg, Germany. The model performs fairly well for ozone in terms of temporal correlation and bias at the air quality monitoring stations in Hamburg. In summer afternoons, when photochemical activity is highest, modelled median ozone at an inner-city urban background station was about 30 % lower than the observed median ozone. Inaccuracy of the computed photolysis frequency of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is the most probable explanation for this. CityChem-EPISODE reproduces the spatial variation of annual mean NO2 concentrations between urban background, traffic and industrial stations. However, the temporal correlation between modelled and observed hourly NO2 concentrations is weak for some of the stations. For daily mean PM10, the performance of CityChem-EPISODE is moderate due to low temporal correlation. The low correlation is linked to uncertainties in the seasonal cycle of the anthropogenic particulate matter (PM) emissions within the urban area. Missing emissions from domestic heating might be an explanation for the too low modelled PM10 in winter months. Four areas of need for improvement have been identified: (1) dry and wet deposition fluxes; (2) treatment of photochemistry in the urban atmosphere; (3) formation of secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA); and (4) formation of biogenic and anthropogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA). The inclusion of secondary aerosol formation will allow for a better sectorial attribution of observed PM levels. Envisaged applications of the CityChem-EPISODE model are urban air quality studies, environmental impact assessment, sensitivity analysis of sector-specific emission and the assessment of local and regional emission abatement policy options.