A laser powder bed fusion system for in situ x-ray diffraction with high-energy synchrotron radiation
AbstractIn Laser Powder Bed Fusion (LPBF), the highly localized energy input by the laser leads to high-temperature gradients. Combined with the inherent cycles of re-melting and solidification of the material, they can result in high mechanical stresses. These stresses can cause distortion and cracking within the component. In situ diffraction experiments with high-energy synchrotron radiation allow an analysis of the lattice spacing during the LPBF process and provide insight into the dynamics of stress generation and texture evolution. In this work, an LPBF system for the purpose of synchrotron x-ray diffraction experiments during the manufacturing process of multi-layer components with simple geometries is described. Moreover, results from diffraction experiments at the HEMS beamline P07 at PETRA III, DESY, Hamburg, Germany, are presented. Components with a length of ls = 20 mm and a width of ws = 2.5 mm consisting of 100 layers with a layer thickness of Δz = 50 µm were produced using the nickel-base alloy Inconel 625 as the powder material. Diffraction experiments were carried out in situ at sampling rates of f = 10 Hz with a synchrotron radiation beam size of 750 × 70 µm2. The presented experimental setup allows for the observation of arbitrary measuring positions in the sample in the transmission mode while gathering full diffraction rings. Thus, new possibilities for the observation of the dynamic evolution of strains, stresses, and textures during the LPBF process are provided.