Cytotoxicity of biodegradable magnesium alloy WE43 to tumor cells in vitro: Bioresorbable implants with antitumor activity?
AbstractIn this study, a degradable magnesium alloy WE43 (Mg–3.56%Y–2.20%Nd–0.47%Zr) was used as a research object. To refine its microstructure from the initial homogenized one, the alloy was subjected to severe plastic deformation (SPD) by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP). The data presented show that coincubation of tumor LNCaP and MDA‐MB‐231 cells with the WE43 alloy in the homogenized and the ECAP‐processed states led to a decrease in their viability and proliferation. An increase in the concentration of Annexin V(+) cells during coincubation with samples in both microstructural states investigated was also observed. This is associated with the induction of apoptosis in the cell culture through contact with the samples. Concurrently, a significant drop in the concentration of Bcl‐2(+) cells occurred. It was established that ECAP led to an enhancement of the cytotoxic activity of the alloy against tumor cells. This study demonstrated that alloy WE43 can be considered as a promising candidate for application in orthopedic implants in clinical oncology, where it could play a double role of a mechanically stable, yet bioresorbable, scaffold with local antitumor activity. © 2019 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater 108B:167–173, 2020.